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高中英语谓语与非谓语动词用法与区别

386 0 0 2018-08-09 09:52:31

非谓语动词指不能单独作谓语,但同时仍保留动词某些特征的动词形式。非谓语动词主要有不定式、动词的-ing形式、动词的-ed形式三类。他们没有人称和数的变化,但可以有自己的宾语、状语等。

动词不定式
及物动词的不定式可以跟宾语
I like to read detective stories.
可被状语修饰
He asked me to say my name aloud.
没有人称和数的变化,即不受主语的人称和单、复数的限定或影响
She liked to play the piano when she was young.
其否定形式是在不定式符号to前面加not
She seems not to have a bright time with her new friends.
不定式的逻辑主语由forof结构引出
It is important for us to look into the word.

 

省略to的不定式
had better do sth
would rather do sth
cannot but do sth
do nothing but do sth
have nothing to do but do sth
Why not do sth?

 

动词的-ing形式
一般式
表示泛指时间
Being careless is not a good habit,whatever you do.
表示与谓语同时发生的动作
Following the guide,we were walking into the deep virgin forest.
表示发生在谓语动词之前的动作
Excuse me for being late.
表示发生在谓语动词之后的动作
Most doctors strongly insist on giving up smoking and taking plenty of exercise.

完成式
-ing形式的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前
I still remember having been taken to the sea for the first time.

被动式
它的一般式表示的动作与谓语动词动作同时发生,或在其后发生。
I don't like being laughed at in public.
它的完成式表示的动作发生在谓语动词动作之前
I am very pleased at your having been chosen as a member of the school volleyball team.
在多数情况下都避免使用-ing形式完成式的被动式,而用一般式代替,可以避免句子显得累赘,尤其是在口语中
-ing形式一般式的被动式在介词后作宾语时,无进行意义,being不可省略
She is afraid of being taken to the public.

 

动词的-ed形式
在句中可以有自己的状语和逻辑主语,带双宾语的及物动词构成的动词-ed形式还可以有自己的宾语,其否定形式是在其前加not
Given enough care,the children can cooperate better.

独立主格结构
指由逻辑主语+逻辑谓语构成,独立于句子之外,并在句子中作状语、定语等成分的结构。
独立主格结构一般做状语,有的特殊形式可作定语
Supper finished,we started to discuss the picnic.
独立主格结构中的being常省略
Nobody beingin, I didn't enter the hall.
独立主格结构与“with+宾语+宾语补足语结构
He stood there,with his hands raise.


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